# 8 4 Compute and Evaluate Overhead Variances Principles of Accounting, Volume 2: Managerial Accounting

On the other hand, if the budgeted fixed overhead is less than the actual cost of fixed overhead that occurs during the period, the result is unfavorable fixed overhead budget variance. This means that the company spends more on fixed overhead than the scheduled amount that it has in the budget plan for the period. Fixed overhead budget variance is one of the two main components of total fixed overhead variance, the other being fixed overhead volume variance. Accounting Tools explains that the fixed overhead variance can be calculated in a number of ways. The fixed overhead expenditure variance, also called the cost variance, budget variance or spending variance, looks at the budgeted cost of overhead against the actual cost of overhead. A favorable variance means that the actual hours worked were less than the budgeted hours, resulting in the application of the standard overhead rate across fewer hours, resulting in less expense being incurred.

However, the variable standard cost per unit is the same per unit for each level of production, but the total variable costs will change. Fixed Overhead Spending Variance is calculated to illustrate the deviation in fixed production costs during a period from the budget. The variance is calculated the same way in case of both marginal and absorption costing systems.

## Fixed Overhead Spending Variance Calculation

The standard overhead rate is the total budgeted overhead of $10,000 divided by the level of activity (direct labor hours) of 2,000 hours. Notice that fixed overhead remains constant at each of the production levels, but variable overhead changes based on unit output. If Connie’s Candy only produced at 90% capacity, for example, they should expect total overhead to be $9,600 and a standard overhead rate of $5.33 (rounded). If Connie’s Candy produced 2,200 units, they should expect total overhead to be $10,400 and a standard overhead rate of $4.73 (rounded).

- To determine the overhead standard cost, companies prepare a flexible budget that gives estimated revenues and costs at varying levels of production.
- Calculate the fixed overhead spending and production volume variances using the format shown in Figure 10.13 “Fixed Manufacturing Overhead Variance Analysis for Jerry’s Ice Cream”.
- If Connie’s Candy produced \(2,200\) units, they should expect total overhead to be \(\$10,400\) and a standard overhead rate of \(\$4.73\) (rounded).
- † $140,280 is the original budget presented in the manufacturing overhead budget shown in Chapter 9 “How Are Operating Budgets Created?”.
- The other variance computes whether or not actual production was above or below the expected production level.

On the other hand, if the actual production volume is lower than the budgeted one, the variance is unfavorable. However, as the name suggested, it is the fixed overhead volume variance that is more about the production volume. Likewise, we can also determine whether the fixed overhead volume variance is favorable or unfavorable by simply comparing the actual production volume to the budgeted production volume. It is important to start by noting that fixed overhead in the

master budget is the same as fixed overhead in the flexible budget

because, by definition, fixed costs do not change with changes in

units produced.

## Module 3: Standard Cost Systems

Also, there may be some seasonality in fixed overhead expenditures, which may cause both favorable and unfavorable variances in individual months of a year, but which cancel each other out over the full year. Other than the two points just noted, the level of production should have no impact on this variance. These calculations exist because each unit produced needs to carry a piece of the overhead costs. The fixed overhead volume variance looks at how the budgeted overhead costs might change when compared to budgeted overhead costs.

## Determination of Variable Overhead Efficiency Variance

That’s why there is usually a fixed overhead budget variance when the company analyzes the fixed overhead variance in detail. With the result above we can conclude that the $1,500 of the fixed overhead budget variance is favorable, in which it means that the company ABC spends less than the budgeted cost in this area by $1,500 in the month of August. Budget or spending variance is the difference between the budget and the actual cost for the actual hours of operation. This variance can be compared to the price and quantity variance developed for direct materials and direct labor. The variance can either be caused by a difference in the fixed overheads at a given level of activity or because of a difference in the number of units produced (which affects the absorption of the overheads).

## What Is a Production Budget Used For?

The company can calculate fixed overhead volume variance with the formula of standard fixed overhead applied to actual production deducting the budgeted fixed overhead. Budgeted fixed overhead is the planned or scheduled fixed manufacturing overhead cost. Though this estimated fixed overhead cost is easy to predict as it does not vary based on the result of production volume or activity, it can still be different from the actual fixed overhead cost that occurs. The company can calculate the https://business-accounting.net/ with the formula of budgeted fixed overhead cost deducting the actual fixed overhead cost. With the result of the comparison, if the budgeted cost of fixed overhead is more than the actual fixed overhead cost, it is a favorable fixed overhead budget variance.

This example provides an opportunity to practice calculating the overhead variances that have been analyzed up to this point. In case of fixed overhead, the https://quick-bookkeeping.net/ budgeted and flexible budget figures are exactly the same. However, the actual cost of fixed overhead that incurs in the month of August is $17,500.

An unfavorable https://kelleysbookkeeping.com/ results when the actual amount spent on fixed manufacturing overhead costs exceeds the budgeted amount. The fixed overhead budget variance is also known as the fixed overhead spending variance. The fixed overhead spending variance is the difference between the actual fixed overhead expense incurred and the budgeted fixed overhead expense. An unfavorable variance means that actual fixed overhead expenses were greater than anticipated.

After all, the total fixed overhead variances come from the fixed overhead budget variance plus the fixed overhead volume variance. The total variable overhead cost variance is also found by combining the variable overhead rate variance and the variable overhead efficiency variance. By showing the total variable overhead cost variance as the sum of the two components, management can better analyze the two variances and enhance decision-making. For Boulevard Blanks, the budgeted fixed overhead was $13,365 (notice the level of production does not matter since fixed costs remain the same regardless of volume) and the actual fixed overhead costs were $13,485.

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